World War One, WOODROW WILSON
The president who led the nation through the hard years of World War I was Woodrow Wilson. He was probably the only president who was a brilliant student and teacher as well as a statesman. He had been a college professor, president of Princeton University, and the author of books on American government. He had also been governor of New Jersey. Woodrow Wilson worked out his political beliefs in the classroom. Then he entered politics to put his theories of government into practice.
Appearance and Personality
Wilson was a slender man, about five feet eleven inches tall. He had a high forehead, high cheekbones, long, thin nose, and long jaw, thrust forward in a stubborn line. His blue-gray eyes, behind rimless nose glasses, had a way of narrowing when he talked, giving him a stern, almost grim expression. He could be cold and disagreeable with men he felt were not sympathetic to him. In fact his greatest fault was his inability to work with those who were not willing to follow his lead completely. He had absolute confidence in his own judgment.
His family and his many close friends knew him as a totally different kind of man--affectionate, charming, generous, and full of fun. He might have been a successful vaudeville actor. He could dance a jig and the cakewalk. He told delightful stories in black, Scottish, and Irish dialects and wrote nonsense jingles. His friends went into gales of laughter over his imitations of mutual acquaintances. He sang well and he had a beautiful speaking voice.
Above all, he loved good conversation. Clever, well-bred people who understood him brought out the best qualities of his brilliant and witty mind. His friends made up a very important part of his life. Once a friendship with him was broken, however, he could never again resume it.
A Family of Ministers and Educators
Woodrow Wilson was born into a family of Presbyterian ministers and teachers. His grandfather, James Wilson, migrated to the United States from Ulster, Ireland, in 1807. He married an Irish girl, Anne Adams, who came on the same ship. James Wilson became a newspaper publisher in Steubenville, Ohio. One of his sons, Joseph Ruggles Wilson, was Woodrow Wilson's father. He became a Presbyterian minister.
Wilson's mother was Janet (Jessie) Woodrow. She was born in Carlisle, England, just across the border from Scotland. Her father, Thomas Woodrow, was a Scottish Presbyterian minister. In 1836 he brought his family to the United States. In time he settled in Ohio, and there his daughter and Joseph Ruggles Wilson were married.
Childhood and Schooling
Thomas Woodrow Wilson was born Christmas week, Dec. 28, 1856, in Staunton, Va., where his father was minister of the First Presbyterian Church. He had two older sisters, Marion and Anne. A brother, Joseph Ruggles Wilson, Jr., was ten years younger.
Tommy, as he was called in his childhood, was a year old when the family moved to Augusta, Ga. He remembered as a child of four standing beside the garden gate and hearing a man say in great excitement that Mr. Lincoln was elected and there was to be war. He ran into the house to ask his father what it meant. He was to see a great deal of the destruction and waste of war in the South and to learn to hate it.
The Wilson family was happy and affectionate. Tommy and his father were unusually close. The boy did not go to school until he was 13. Until then his father had been his only teacher. Dr. Wilson took the boy on visits to the neighboring cotton gin, corn mill, iron foundry, and ammunition plant and explained how they operated. He taught him to look up unfamiliar words in the dictionary and to repeat them until he could use them easily. He taught him how to write simply and express his meaning exactly. This skill with words helped make Wilson famous.
Tommy's interest in parliamentary law began when he was a boy. He organized and made himself president of a club, the Lightfoots, which played baseball and engaged in various secret and adventurous activities. They met in the hayloft of Dr. Wilson's barn. Tommy wrote a constitution for the club and conducted its meetings according to 'Robert's Rules of Order'. The boys were impressed with their leader. They would have been more impressed if they could have known that this tall, thin boy with spectacles, big ears, and a pale face would one day write the constitution for the League of Nations.
In 1870, when the boy was 14, the family moved to Columbia, S.C. It was a lonely period, and he amused himself by studying nautical terms and writing a fanciful yarn of the sea. He imagined himself to be Admiral Wilson of the United States Navy, whose fleet destroyed a nest of pirates in the South Pacific. The story took the form of daily reports, directed to the Navy Department at Washington, D.C.
He began to read books on the science of government. A picture of William Gladstone hung over his desk. He explained to his cousin: "That is Gladstone, the greatest statesman that ever lived. I intend to be a statesman too."
The College Student
In 1873 he entered Davidson College in North Carolina. He was badly prepared for college. By the end of the term his health broke down from overwork. After 15 months of studying by himself he entered Princeton, then known as the College of New Jersey. Here he discovered the fine qualities of his mind and gained a confidence in himself which he never lost. He studied the art of public speaking and was active in the college debating society. In his senior year he wrote a brilliant essay on "Cabinet Government in the United States." He dropped the name Thomas and signed himself "Woodrow Wilson."
After his graduation from Princeton in 1879 he entered the University of Virginia to study law. He took his law degree in 1882 and entered into a partnership, Renick and Wilson, in Atlanta, Ga. A brief struggle to build up a practice convinced him that he would never make a successful lawyer. He returned to the "advantages and delights of study" in 1883.
This time he spent two years at Johns Hopkins University studying history and political science. For all his brilliance, Wilson never stood at the top of his class. He refused to study subjects that bored him, and he had great contempt for the pursuit of high marks and academic degrees. He took his degree of doctor of philosophy from Johns Hopkins only at the insistence of friends who pointed out that it meant a higher salary as a teacher. He submitted as his dissertation a book on 'Congressional Government', which was published in 1885, a year after he left the university. In this penetrating study he made the point that congressional government, as practiced in the United States, divides responsibility and thus lends itself to inefficiency and corruption.
The College Professor
When he was 29 years old he started on his career as an educator. He was associate professor of history at Bryn Mawr College (for women) (1885-88) and then professor of history and political economy at Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn. (1888-90). In 1890 he returned as professor of jurisprudence and political economy to the College of New Jersey. In the next 20 years he was to see it grow into the great Princeton University. For eight years (1902-10) he was president of the university.
Year after year the Princeton students elected him their most popular professor. He was an inspiring teacher. He had small respect for the kind of mind that accumulates facts and dates. He believed in the importance of "developing the mind by using it rather than stuffing it." "The essence of the cultured mind is its capacity for relating knowledge," he declared.
They were busy years. In addition to teaching he had published 'Congressional Government' (1885), 'The State' (1889), 'Division and Reunion' (1893), 'George Washington' (1896), 'A History of the American People' (1902), and 'Constitutional Government in the United States' (1908). He wrote many essays and book reviews and was in great demand as a lecturer.
He was always overworked and suffered repeated sick spells which required long periods of rest. Historians have suspected that he suffered perhaps as many as three strokes--two minor and one more serious--during the 1890s. In 1906 he was told that he must retire and lead a very quiet life, but he kept on going. Without the help and sympathy of his wife, he could never have accomplished all that he did.
Marriage and Family Life
He had married Ellen Axson of Rome, Ga., in 1885. They had three daughters--Margaret (born in 1886), Jessie (1887), and Eleanor (1889). His wife saw that he had quiet for his working hours, freedom from money worries, and the frequent association of intellectual friends. On the small salary of a teacher they managed to help their younger relatives get a college education by opening their home to them.
A friend of later years wrote, "The more I am with the Wilsons the more I am struck by their unrivaled home life. I have never dreamed such sweetness and love could be."
President of Princeton University
As president of Princeton, Wilson launched his first reform crusade--to build a university that would produce leaders and statesmen. The first problem was to get rid of the upper-class eating clubs. "The side-shows are swallowing up the circus," he remarked. The second was to establish a stronger graduate college. He proposed a plan in which graduates and undergraduates should live together in small colleges presided over by teachers and tutors. Students and professors would benefit by the mutual stimulation of cultured, scholarly ideals.
He succeeded in reorganizing the courses of study and in adding to the faculty 47 young scholars, called preceptors. Their duty was individual supervision of the students and the development of small discussion groups. But on the major issues he failed.
Students and alumni opposed elimination of social clubs. A group in the faculty was determined to place the graduate college under a separate administration and to house its students in a quadrangle far removed from the undergraduate campus, libraries, and laboratories. Wilson was convinced that such plans reduced the graduate college to little more than an expensive hall of residence. When two alumni willed several million dollars to the graduate college on condition that the opposition's plans be carried out, Wilson was defeated. He felt that the issue was between democracy and the power of money and special privilege.
Reform Governor of New Jersey
The Princeton battle attracted wide publicity and led to his election as governor of New Jersey in 1910. He showed his independence and his capacity for getting things done. Again, as at Princeton, he plunged into battle with forces he was convinced opposed the public good. New Jersey was run by a group of political bosses who thought they could use Wilson as a respectable front. He side-stepped the Democratic party machine and appealed directly to the voters for support of his program. In a little over a year he put through a public utility control act, a corrupt political practices act, a workmen's compensation act, and a direct primary act.
These bold reforms attracted national attention to the college president turned politician. In 1912 he won the Democratic party's nomination for president of the United States. Theodore Roosevelt split the Republican party and Wilson won the election. The electoral vote was 435 for Wilson, 88 for Roosevelt, and 8 for Taft. But Wilson won only 42 percent of the popular vote. The combined vote for Roosevelt and Taft exceeded Wilson's by more than 1,300,000.
Life in the White House
The Wilson family was far from happy about the prospect of going to the White House. The outgoing president, William Howard Taft, said to them, "I'm glad to be going--this is the lonesomest place in the world." Eleanor Wilson wrote in her memoirs that the day before her father's inauguration she wept until she was exhausted, crying, "It will kill them--it will kill them both."
Yet the Wilson family adapted themselves very quickly to life in the White House. Mrs. Wilson made a simple and democratic home, as she had done wherever they went. Two weddings took place in the White House in the first two years. Jessie married Francis B. Sayre on Nov. 26, 1913, and Eleanor married William Gibbs McAdoo on May 7, 1914.
Mrs. Wilson's health began to fail early in 1914. Her ability to endear herself to everyone was indicated by an action of Congress. Informed that she was sinking, they hastily passed a bill for slum clearance in Washington, which she had very much at heart, so that she might be told of it before she died, in August of that year.
Dependent as he had always been on his wife's companionship, the president became lonely and depressed. Through his personal physician, Col. Cary Grayson, he met a beautiful and gracious widow, Mrs. Edith Bolling Galt. Wilson and Mrs. Galt were married in December 1915.
A Political Reformer in the White House
Wilson called his philosophy of government the "new freedom." "What I am interested in is having the government of the United States more concerned about human rights than about property rights," he declared. Convinced that strong executive leadership was necessary for progress, he went further than any other president in forcing his wishes on Congress. He called Congress in extra session early in April 1913 and addressed the two houses in person. This broke a precedent of long standing. From time to time after that he went before Congress with parts of his program. The result was a mass of progressive legislation unequaled in any administration up to that time.
Tariff reform. The Underwood-Simmons tariff lowered duties on more than a hundred items. A tariff commission was established in 1916 to study tariffs and make recommendations.
Income tax. To offset the loss in revenue from tariff reductions, a graduated income tax law was enacted as authorized by the newly adopted 16th Amendment to the Constitution. It was levied according to wealth.
Currency and credit reform. The Federal Reserve banking system was established, and a board of control was set up to administer the system. For the first time in American history, finance and credits were placed under government direction. The Federal Farm Loan Act created 12 farm loan-banks to give cheap and easy credit to farmers and tenants.
Regulation of business. The Federal Trade Commission was created, with power to forbid unfair business practices. The Clayton Act, designed to strengthen the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, defined the methods of competition that the Commission was empowered to forbid. It made officers of corporations liable for illegal acts of those corporations, exempted labor unions from antitrust acts, and forbade the use of labor injunctions except where necessary to protect property.
Other social legislation. The La Follette Seamen's bill required better living and working conditions for ocean and lake sailors. The Adamson Act set an eight-hour working day for railroad workers.
Diplomacy in Latin America
Congress in 1912 had enacted a Panama tolls law that violated the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty of 1901 with Great Britain, guaranteeing equal treatment in the use of the canal. Wilson persuaded Congress to repeal the act.
American businessmen were investing heavily in the mines, railroads, and other resources of Latin America. Wilson announced soon after his inauguration that he would abandon "dollar diplomacy." This meant that investors could no longer expect the United States government to protect their interests. Nevertheless, Wilson permitted United States intervention to restore order in Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic.
In 1914 the Marines seized the port of Veracruz, Mexico, when Mexican police arrested several American sailors. Mediation by the "A B C powers" (Argentina, Brazil, and Chile) averted war. In March 1916 a Mexican rebel, Francisco (Pancho) Villa, raided Columbus, N. M., killing 17 Americans. With the permission of President Carranza of Mexico, the United States sent an expedition into Mexico under Gen. John J. Pershing. They failed to catch Villa and were withdrawn in January 1917.
Wilson and World War I
In the summer of 1914 all Europe was plunged into war. Wilson called upon the United States to be neutral "even in spirit," but few Americans were able to remain impartial. For two years the president made every effort to avoid war. Even after the unarmed British liner Lusitania was sunk by a German submarine with a loss of almost 1,200 lives including 124 Americans, he argued: "There is such a thing as a man being too proud to fight."
In 1916 he was reelected. He defeated the Republican candidate Charles Evans Hughes by an electoral vote of 277 to 254. The campaign slogan "He kept us out of war" probably won him more popular votes than any other factor. After the election Wilson tried to end the war by active mediation. The Germans, however, resumed unrestricted submarine warfare. On April 2, 1917, the president asked Congress for a declaration of war. Before a joint session of the two houses he read the solemn words, "The present German submarine warfare against commerce is a warfare against mankind. It is a war against all nations. . . . We are accepting this challenge. . . . The world must be made safe for democracy." On April 6, Congress declared war.
In the next 18 months the United States built an army of 4 million men by conscription, sent 2 million men overseas to France, and united the entire population behind the war effort. A vast propaganda machine was created under the title of the Committee on Public Information. The words of Wilson reached the German people by radio for the first time in history. Leaflets were scattered from airplanes, shot from guns and rockets, and smuggled behind the enemy lines. Wilson said that this was a "war to end war." He spoke of "peace without victory" and without revenge.
On Jan. 8, 1918, he announced his Fourteen Points as the basis for a peace settlement. They were more than peace terms; they were terms for a better world. He followed this speech with his famous "self-determination" speech on February 11 in which he said: "National aspirations must be respected; people may now be dominated and governed only by their own consent. 'Self determination' is not a mere phrase; it is an imperative principle of action. . . . "
The Battle for the Peace Treaty
The war came to an end on Nov. 11, 1918. The German proposals for peace came in the midst of the Congressional elections. Wilson appealed to the people to support his policies by returning a Democratic majority to both houses. The party was defeated, however, and with a Republican majority in control he was no longer able to lead the Congress.
Against the advice of those close to him, the president decided to attend the peace conference in Paris and fight for his policies in person. He took with him few advisers, and none from the Republican party. On December 13 he arrived in Europe. Probably no man has ever been given such an ovation. Wherever he went enormous crowds gathered, sobbing, cheering, shouting his name.
The peace conference dragged on week after weary week. David Lloyd George of England, Vittorio Orlando of Italy, Georges Clemenceau of France, all were experienced and shrewd diplomats and each was determined to have his own way. The endless arguing and the official receptions and banquets frayed Wilson's nerves. He suffered a brief but severe illness. Thereafter he was more tense, nervous, and irritable.
The peace as agreed upon in June 1919 did contain many of his ideas. His greatest success was in writing into the Versailles Treaty the Covenant (constitution) of a League of Nations. On July 10, 1919, he laid it before a hostile Senate, led by Henry Cabot Lodge and a "little group of willful men," as Wilson called them. They were especially opposed to the League of Nations, but Wilson refused to compromise his dream. In search of popular support that would overwhelm the Senate, he toured the country in defense of the League. Exhausted, he collapsed in Pueblo, Colo., late in September. A stroke left him paralyzed.
For a month only his wife and his doctor were allowed to see him. Then, with his wife guiding his hand, he placed a wobbly signature on major bills. Only a strong will kept him alive. When Secretary of State Robert Lansing presumed to call Cabinet meetings, Wilson promptly dismissed him. He refused to let his vice-president, Thomas R. Marshall, take charge. In her memoirs Edith Wilson said that the president remained the active head of state, making decisions on the basis of digests that she had prepared.
Wilson was unable to participate in the 1920 presidential campaign, and the Democratic candidate, James M. Cox, was overwhelmingly defeated by the Republican Warren G. Harding. Wilson died on Feb. 3, 1924. He was buried in the National Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul in Washington, D.C.