A Complete History Of The European Middle Ages

The Middle Ages

Date: 1992

During the decline of the Roman Empire, the migrations of a strong, rude people began to change the life of Europe. They were the German barbarians, or Teutonic tribes, who swept across the Rhine and the Danube into the empire. There they accepted Christianity. The union of barbarian vigor and religious spirit carried Europe to the threshold of modern times. That span from the ancient era to the modern is called the Middle Ages.

The Middle Ages cover about 1,000 years--from about AD 500 to about AD 1500. The change from ancient ways to medieval customs came so gradually, however, that it is difficult to tell exactly when the Middle Ages began. Some historians say that the Middle Ages began in AD 476, when the barbarian Odoacer overthrew the emperor Romulus Augustulus, ending the Western Roman Empire. Other historians give the year 410, when Alaric, king of the Visigoths, sacked Rome. Still others say about AD 500 or even later. It is equally hard to determine exactly when the Middle Ages ended, for decisive events leading to the modern age took place at different times. Historians say variously that the Middle Ages ended with the fall of Constantinople, in 1453; with the discovery of America, in 1492; or with the beginning of the Reformation, in 1517.

A New Empire In The West

The Early Middle Ages, 500-1000


The first dominant kingdom to emerge from the decentralization of the

early Middle Ages was that of the Germanic tribe of the Franks. From 714 to

814, the Carolingian House of the Franks brought stability and progress to

northern Europe. A large portion of the West enjoyed military and political

security as well as religious unity.

This accomplishment was not to last, however. The Frankish empire did not

endure, partly because it lacked the strong economic bases that has supported

the Romans. By the ninth century, Muslim conquests and commercial activity

successfully competed with the Franks; inland trade declined sharply and urban

life almost disappeared in the north. In addition, the empire had no strong

administrative machinery to compensate for the weak rulers who followed the

dominating leadership of the emperor Charlemagne; the empire disintegrated

amid civil wars and invasions.

The impressive achievements of the Carolingians towards building a

unifying governmental system were not able to counteract the decentralization

of political, military, and economic activity in most of western Europe. A

system of government sometimes referred to as feudalism attempted to provide

stability and to serve as an effective political substitute for a powerful,

effective central government. Economic life centered on a concern for

subsistence and security, which could only be provided by the acceptance of

local and rural customs and practices designed to ensure the necessities of

life through resisting change and fostering self-sufficiency. The church

continued its efforts to convert and standardize the belief of its members,

and in so doing attempted to provide spiritual security in a troubled and

insecure world.

A New Empire In The West

In the merging of Roman and Germanic cultures and institutions, the

Franks played an especially significant role. The kingdom of the Franks was

not only the most enduring of the Germanic states established in the West, but

it became, with the active support of the church, the center of the new Europe

that attempted to assume the place of the western Roman Empire.

The Kingdom of the Franks Under Clovis

Before the Germanic invasions of the fourth century, the Franks lived

along the east bank of the Rhine, close to the North Sea. Late in the fourth

century the Franks began a slow movement south and west across the Rhine into

Gaul. By 481 they occupied the northern part of Gaul as far as the old Roman

city of Paris; in that year Clovis I of the Merovingian House became ruler of

one of the small Frankish kingdoms. By the time of his death in 511, Clovis

had united the Franks into a single kingdom that stretched south to the


Clovis achieved his aims by the crafty manipulation of marriage

alliances, treachery, assassination, and the use of religion. Clovis first

allied himself with other kings of the small Frankish states to dispose of

Syagrius, the last Roman general in Gaul. He then turned against his own

allies and subdued them.

According to the sixth century Gallo-Roman bishop and historian Gregory

of Tours, whose History of the Franks is the most detailed account of any of

the early Germanic peoples, Clovis was converted to Christianity in 496 as a

result of a battle against the Alemanni, a pagan Germanic tribe whose name

became the French word for Germany, Allemagne. On the verge of being defeated,

Clovis called on the Christian god for help:

O Christ ... if you accord me the victory ... I will believe

in you and be baptized in your name. I have called on my gods,

but I have found from experience that they are far from my aid ...

it is you whom I believe to be able to defeat my enemies. ^1

[Footnote 1: Gregory of Tours, History of the Franks II, 30; quoted in Eleanor

Duckett, The Gateway to the Middle Ages (New York: The Macmillan Company,

1938), p. 231.]

Clovis won the battle and was baptized together with his whole army. He

became the only mainstream Christian ruler in the West, for the other Germanic

tribes were either pagan or Arian Christians.

The conversion of the Franks to Christianity is considered a decisive

event in European history. Ultimately it led to an alliance of the Franks and

the papacy, and immediately it assured Clovis the loyalty of the Gallo-Roman

bishops, the leaders of the native Christian population of Gaul. This was a

political advantage not open to the Arian Visigothic and Burgundian kings.

With the help of the native population of Gaul, Clovis was able to expand his

control in the name of Christian orthodoxy.

In 507 Clovis attacked the Visigoths, who ruled Gaul south of the Loire

River and all of Spain. The Visigothic king was killed, and his people

abandoned most of their Gallic territory. Clovis died four years later at the

age of forty-five; his conquests formed the core of what would eventually

become the French nation.

[See Kingdom Of Clovis I]

Decline of the Merovingians

Clovis' sons and grandsons conquered the Burgundian kingdom and extended

Frankish control to the Mediterranean and further into Germany. After a

century, however, the Merovingian House began to decay from inner weaknesses.

The Germanic practice of treating the kingdom as personal property and

dividing it among all the king's sons resulted in constant and bitter civil

wars. Potential heirs plotted murders, intrigue, and treachery. Merovingian

kings proved themselves incompetent and ineffectual as rulers. Soon the

Frankish state broke up into three separate kingdoms; in each, power was

concentrated in the hands of the chief official of the royal household, the

mayor of the palace, a powerful noble in whose interest it was to keep the

king weak and ineffectual. The Merovingian rulers were mere puppets, the rois

faineants ("do-nothing kings").

A Dark Age

By the middle of the seventh century the Frankish state had lost many of

the essential characteristics of its Roman predecessor. The Roman system of

administration and taxation had completely collapsed. The dukes and counts who

represented the Merovingian king received no salary and usually acted on their

own initiative in commanding fighting men and presiding over the courts in

their districts. International commerce had ceased except for a small trade in

luxury items carried on by adventurous Greek, Syrian, and Jewish traders. The

old Roman cities served mainly to house the local bishop and his staff. The

absence of a vibrant middle class meant that society was composed of the

nobility, a fusion through intermarriage of aristocratic Gallo-Roman and

German families who owned and exercised authority over large estates, and the

lower class coloni, who were bound to the land. These serfs included large

numbers of formerly free German farmers. Only about 10 percent of the peasant

population of Gaul maintained a free status.

Coinciding with the Merovingian decay, new waves of invaders threatened

every part of Europe. A great movement of Slavic people from the area that is

now Russia had begun in about A.D. 500. The Slavs fanned out from this point,

filling the areas left by the Germanic tribes when they pushed south into the

Roman Empire. By 650 the western Slavs had reached the Elbe River, across

which they raided German territory. More danger threatened western Europe from

the south; in the late seventh century the Muslims prepared to invade Spain

from North Africa.

Charles Martel and the Rise of the Carolingians

The Frankish kingdom revived when Charles Martel became mayor of the

palace in 714. His father, one of the greatest Frankish landowners, had

eliminated all rival mayors. Although Charles ruled a united Frankish kingdom

in all but name, the Merovingian kings were kept as figureheads at the court.

Charles is best remembered for his victory over a Muslim invasion of

Frankish territory, which earned him the surname Martel, "The Hammer." In 711

an army of Muslims from North Africa had invaded Spain, and by 718 the weak

kingdom of the Visigoths had collapsed. With most of the peninsula under their

control, the Muslims began making raids across the Pyrenees. In 732 Charles

Martel met them near Tours, deep within the Frankish kingdom. Muslim losses

were heavy, and during the night they retreated to Spain.

A major military reform coincided with the Battle of Tours. For some time

before this conflict, the effectiveness of mounted soldiers had been growing,

aided by the introduction of the stirrup, which allowed mounted warriors to

keep a firm seat while wielding their weapons. To counteract the effectiveness

of the quick-striking Muslim cavalry, Charles recruited a force of

professional mounted soldiers whom he rewarded with sufficient land to enable

each of them to maintain a family, equipment, and war horses.

Pepin the Short

Charles Martel's son, Pepin the Short, who ruled from 741 to 768, was a

worthy successor to his father. To legalize the power already being exercised

by the mayors of the palace, Pepin requested and received from the pope a

decision that whoever exercised the actual power in the kingdom should be the

legal ruler. In 751 Pepin was elected king by the Franks; the last Merovingian

was quietly sent to a secluded monastery. In 754 the pope reaffirmed the

election of Pepin by crossing the Alps and personally anointing the new king

in the Old Testament manner, as the Chosen of the Lord.

Behind the pope's action lay his need for a powerful protector. In 751

the Lombards had conquered the Exarchate of Ravenna, the center of Byzantine

government in Italy, were demanding tribute from the pope, and threatened to

besiege Rome. Following Pepin's coronation, the pope secured the new ruler's

promise of armed intervention in Italy and his pledge to give the papacy the

Exarchate of Ravenna, once it was conquered. In 756 a Frankish army forced the

Lombard king to relinquish his conquests, and Pepin officially gave Ravenna to

the pope. Known as the "Donation of Pepin," the gift made the pope a temporal

ruler over the Papal States, a strip of territory that extended diagonally

across northern Italy.

The alliance between the Franks and the papacy affected the course of

politics and religion for centuries. It accelerated the separation of the

Roman from the Greek Christian church by providing the papacy with a

dependable western ally in place of the Byzantines, previously its only

protector against the Lombards; it created the Papal States, which played a

major role in Italian politics until the late nineteenth century; and, by the

use of the ritual of anointment, it carried on a tradition that kingship in

the West was to be affirmed by approval of church officials.

Charlemagne's Accomplishments

Under Pepin's son, Charlemagne (Charles the Great), who ruled from 768 to

814, the Frankish state and the Carolingian House reached the summit of their

power. Charlemagne's biographer, Einhard, described the king as a natural

leadertall, physically strong, and a great horseman who always led the charge

at the hunt. Although he was primarily a successful warrior-king, leading his

armies on yearly campaigns, Charlemagne also tried to provide an effective

administration for his kingdom. In addition, he had great appreciation for

learning and attempted to further the arts in his court.

Taking advantage of feuds among the Muslims in Spain, Charlemagne sought

to extend his kingdom southward. In 778 he crossed the Pyrenees and met with

some success. As the Frankish army headed back north, it was met by the

Christian Basques, who attacked the Franks from the rear. In this skirmish the

Frankish leader, a count named Roland, was killed. The memory of his heroism

was later recorded in the great medieval epic, the Chanson de Roland (Song of

Roland). On later expeditions the Franks drove the Muslims back to the Ebro

River and estalished a frontier area known as the Spanish March, or Mark,

centered near Barcelona. French immigrants moved into the area, later called

Catalonia, giving it a character culturally distinguishable from the rest of


Charlemagne conquered the Bavarians and the Saxons, the last of the

independent Germanic tribes. It took thirty-two campaigns to subdue the

Saxons, who lived between the Rhine and Elbe rivers. Charlemagne divided

Saxony into bishoprics, built monasteries, and instituted severe laws against

paganism. Eating meat during the penitential period of Lent, cremating the

dead (an old pagan practice), and pretending to be baptized were offenses

punishable by death.

Like his father before him, Charlemagne was concerned with Italian

politics. The Lombards resented the attempts of the papacy to expand civil

control in northern Italy. At the request of the pope, Charlemagne attacked

the Lombards in 774, defeated them and proclaimed himself their king. While in

Italy, he reaffirmed his father's alliance with the church through the

Donation of Pepin.

The empire's eastern frontier was continually threatened by the Avars,

Asiatic nomads related to the Huns, and the Slavs. In six campaigns

Charlemagne almost eliminated the Avars and then set up his own military

province in the valley of the Danube to guard against any future plundering by

eastern nomads. Called the East Mark, this territory later was named Austria.

Charlemagne's Coronation in Rome

One of the most important events in Charlemagne's reign took place on

Christmas Day, 800. In the previous year the Roman nobility had ousted the

pope, charging him with corruption. Charlemagne came to Rome and restored the

pope to his office. Then, at the Christmas service while Charlemagne knelt

before the altar at St. Peter's, the pope placed a crown on his head amid the

cries of the assembled congregation: "To Charles Augustus crowned of God,

great and pacific Emperor of the Romans, long life and victory!"

This ceremony demonstrated that the memory of the Roman Empire still

survived as a meaningful tradition in Europe and that there was a strong

desire to reestablish a political unity. In fact, Charlemagne had named his

capital at Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) "New Rome" and was about to take the title

of emperor in an attempt to revive the idea of the Roman Empire in the West.

By seizing the initiative and crowning Charlemagne, the pope attempted to

assume a position of superiority as a maker of emperors.

Charlemagne's Administration

The extent of Charlemagne's empire was impressive. His territories

included all of the western area of the old Roman Empire except Africa,

Britain, southern Italy, and southern Spain. Seven defensive provinces, or

marks, protected the empire against hostile neighbors.

The Carolingian territories were divided into some three hundred

administrative divisions, each under a count (graf) or, in the marks along the

border, a margrave (markgraf). In addition, there were local military

officials, the dukes. In an effort to solve the problem of supervising the

local officials, a problem that plagued all Germanic rulers, Charlemagne

issued an ordinance creating the missi dominici, the king's envoys. Pairs of

these itinerant officials, usually a bishop and a lay noble, traveled

throughout the realm to check on the local administration. To make the missi

immune to bribes, they were chosen from men of high rank, were frequently

transferred from one region to another, and no two of them were teamed for

more than one year.

[See Charlemagne's Empire]

The Carolingian Renaissance

Charlemagne also promoted a revival of learning and the arts. His efforts

in this area were destined to be far more lasting than his attempt to revive

the Roman Empire in the West, and they have prompted historians to speak of

this period as one of cultural rebirth.

In 789 Charlemagne decreed that every monastery must have a school for

the education of boys in "singing, arithmetic, and grammar." As he stated in a

letter to the abbot of Fulda, Charlemagne was greatly concerned over the

illiteracy of the clergy:

Since in these years there were often sent to us from divers

monasteries letters in which ... owing to neglect of learning,

the untutored tongue could not express [itself] without faultiness.

Whence it came that we began to fear lest, as skill in writing

was less, wisdom to understand the Sacred Scriptures might be far

less than it ought rightly to be. ^2

[Footnote 2: Quoted in M. L. W. Laistner, Thought and Letters in Western

Europe, A.D. 500 to 900 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1931), pp.


At his capital of Aix-la-Chapelle, the emperor also sponsored a palace school

for the education of the royal household and the stimulation of learning

throughout the realm. Alcuin, the Anglo-Saxon scholar in charge of the school,

began the difficult task of reviving learning by writing textbooks on grammar,

spelling, rhetoric, and logic. "Ye lads," Alcuin exhorted his students, "whose

age is fitted for reading, learn! The years go by like running water. Waste

not the teachable days in idleness!" ^3

[Footnote 3: M. L. W. Laistner, Thought and Letters in Western Europe, p.


The reform of handwriting and the preservation of classical manuscripts

were significant achievements of the Carolingian revival. Copyists labored in

monasteries to preserve the classics of pagan and Christian thought with the

result that the oldest manuscripts of most of the Latin classics that have

come down to us date from the age of Charlemagne. The almost illegible script

of the Merovingian period was replaced by a more readable style of writing,

known as Carolingian minuscule - "little letters," in contrast to the capitals

used by the Romans. Carolingian miniscule became the foundation for the

typefaces still used in present-day printing, including that used in this


At Aix-la-Chapelle Charlemagne also strove to recapture something of the

magnificence of ancient Rome by building a stone palace church modeled after a

sixth-century church in Ravenna. Its mosaics were probably the work of

Byzantine artisans, and its marble columns were taken from ancient buildings

in Rome and Ravenna.

Charlemagne's Legacy

Charlemagne must be considered one of the most significant figures of

European history. He extended Christian civilization in Europe, set up

barriers to prevent invasions of the Slavs and Avars, and created a new Europe

whose center was in the north rather than on the Mediterranean and a state in

which law and order was again enforced after three centuries of

disintegration. His patronage of learning began a cultural revival that later

generations would build upon, producing a European civilization distinct from

the Byzantine to the east and the Muslim to the south.

Charlemagne's empire was not long-lived, however, for its territories

were too vast and its nobility too divisive to be held together after the

dominating personality of its creator had passed from the scene. Charlemagne

had no standing army; his foot soldiers were essentially the old Germanic war

band summoned to fight by its war leader, and his mounted warriors served him,

as they had Charles Martel, in return for grants of land. Charlemagne did not

have a bureaucratic administrative machine comparable to that of Roman times.

The Frankish economy was agricultural and localized, and there was no system

of taxation adequate to maintain an effective and permanent administration.

Under Charlemagne's weak successors the empire collapsed in the confusion of

civil wars and devastating new invasions. Progress toward a centralized and

effective monarchy in Europe ended with Charlemagne's death.

The Division of the Empire

Before his death in 814, Charlemagne himself, ignoring the pope, placed

the imperial crown on the head of his only surviving son, Louis the Pious, a

well-meaning man who was loved by the clergy, ignored by the nobility, and

resented by his own family. Louis, in accord with Frankish custom, divided the

kingdom among his sons, and bitter rivalry and warfare broke out among the

brothers and their father.

Louis the Pious died in 840, and strife continued among his three

surviving sons. Lothair, the oldest, was opposed by his two younger brothers -

Louis the German and Charles the Bald. In 842 the two younger brothers joined

forces by swearing the Strasbourg Oaths. The text of these oaths is

significant in that one part was in an early form of French, the other in

German. The first could be understood by Charles' followers, who lived mainly

west of the Rhine; the other by Louis' followers, who lived east of the Rhine.

These oaths are evidence that the Carolingian empire was splitting into two

linguistic and cultural sections - East Frankland, the forerunner of modern

Germany, and West Frankland, or France.

In 843 the three brothers met at Verdun, where they agreed to split the

Carolingian lands three ways. Charles the Bald obtained the western part of

the empire and Louis the German the eastern; Lothair, who retained the title

of emperor, obtained an elongated middle kingdom, which stretched a thousand

miles from the North Sea to central Italy.

The Treaty of Verdun is important because it began the shaping of modern

France and Germany by giving politcal recognition to the cultural and

linguistic division shown in the Strasbourg Oaths. Lothair's middle kingdom

soon collapsed into three major parts, Lorraine in the north, Burgundy, and

Italy in the south. Lorraine included Latin and German cultures, and although

it was divided in 870 between Charles and Louis, the area was disputed for

centuries. Lorraine became one of the battlegrounds of Europe.

The rival Carolingian houses produced no strong leaders worthy of being

called "Hammer" (Martel) or "Great"; instead, we find kings with such

revealing names as Charles the Fat, Charles the Simple, Louis the Child, and

Louis the Sluggard. The last of the East Frankish Carolingians died in 911. In

West Frankland the nobles, ignoring the eighteen-year-old Carolingian prince,

chose Odo, the count of Paris, as king in 888.

[See Empire Partition: Partition of Chatlemagne's Empire 843.]

The New Invasions

During the ninth and tenth centuries the remnants of Charlemagne's empire

were also battered by new waves of invaders. Scandinavians attacked from the

north, Muslims from the south, and a new wave of Asiatic nomads, the Magyars,

conducted a series of destructive raids on central Europe and northern Italy.

Christian Europe had to fight for its life against these aggressive and

warlike newcomers, who did far more damage to life and property than the

Germanic invaders of the fifth century.

From bases in North Africa, Muslim adventurers in full command of the sea

plundered the coasts of Italy and France. In 827 they began the conquest of

Byzantine Sicily and southern Italy. From forts erected in southern France

they penetrated far inland to attack the caravans of merchants in the Alpine

passes. What trade still existed between Byzantium and western Europe, except

for that undertaken by Venice and one or two other Italian towns, was now

almost totally cut off, and the Mediterranean Sea became a virtual Muslim


The most widespread and destructive raids came from Scandinavia. During

the ninth and tenth centuries Swedes, Danes, and Norwegians - collectively

known as Vikings - began to move south from their remote forests and fiords.

The reason for this expansion is not clear, but some historians cite

overpopulation and a surplus of young men as causes. Other scholars view these

raiders as defeated war bands expelled from their homeland by the gradual

emergence of strong royal power. Still others see a clue in the fact that the

Vikings had developed seaworthy ships capable of carrying a hundred men and

powered by long oars or by sail when the wind was favorable. Viking sailors

also had developed expert sailing techniques; without benefit of the compass,

they were able to navigate by means of the stars at night and the sun during

the day.

[See Viking Ship: Oseberge ship, from the early Viking period. Courtesy

Norwegian Information Service]

The range of Viking expansion was impressive. The Vikings explored as far

as North America to the west, the Caspian Sea to the east, and the

Mediterranean to the south. Few areas seemed immune from their raids, which

filled civilized Europeans with a fear that was reflected in a new prayer in

the litany of the church: "From the fury of the Northmen, O Lord deliver us."

Three main routes of Viking expansion can be identified. The outer path,

which was followed principally by the Norwegians, swung westward to Ireland

and the coast of Scotland. Between 800 and 850 Ireland was ravaged severely.

Many monasteries, the centers of the flourishing Irish Celtic culture, were

destroyed. By 875 the Norwegians were beginning to occupy remote Iceland, and

it was here rather than in their homeland that the magnificent Norse sagas

were preserved, little affected by either classical or Christian influences.

During the tenth century the Icelandic Norsemen ventured on to Greenland and,

later, to North America.

Another route, the eastern line, was followed chiefly by the Swedes, who

went down the rivers of Russia as merchants and soldiers of fortune and, as

was described in chapter 7, founded the nucleus of a Russian state.

The Danes took the middle passage, raiding Britain and the shores of

Germany, France, and Spain. By the 870s they had occupied most of Britain

north of the Thames. Also in the middle of the ninth century their raids

increased upon the Continent, where their long boats sailed up the Rhine,

Scheldt, Seine, and Loire rivers. In particular the Danes devastated northwest

France, destroying dozens of abbeys and towns. Unable to fight off the Viking

attacks, the weak Carolingian king Charles the Simple arranged a treaty with

Rollo, a Norse chieftain, in 911. This agreement created a Viking buffer

state, later called Normandy, and recognized Rollo as duke and vassal of the

French king. Like Viking settlers elsewhere, these Northmen, or Normans, soon

adopted Christian civilization. By the eleventh century, Normandy was a

powerful duchy, and the Viking spirit of the Normans contributed in producing

the most vigorous crusaders, conquerors, and administrators in Europe.

Europe in 900

Europe's response to the invasions of the ninth and tenth centuries was

not uniform. By 900, the Viking occupation of England initiated a strong

national reaction, which soon led to the creation of a united British kingdom.

Similarly, Germany in 919 reacted to the Magyar threat by installing the first

of a new and able line of kings who went on to become the most powerful

European monarchs since Charlemagne.

The Viking attacks on France accelerated the trend toward political

fragmentation that began under the Merovingians but was temporarily halted by

the strong personal leadership provided by the Carolingians. When

Charlemange's weak successors were unable to cope with constant Viking

assaults, and the government could not hold together its vast territory

without either a bureaucracy or a dominating king, the result was that small

independent landowners surrendered both their lands and their personal

freedoms to the many counts, dukes, and other local lords in return for

protection and security. The decline of trade further strengthened the

position of the landed nobility, whose large estates, or manors, tended to

become economically self-sufficient. In addition, the nobility became

increasingly dependent on military service rendered by a professional force of

heavily armed mounted knights, many of whom still lived in the house of their

noble retainers in return for their military service.

In response to all these elements - the disintegration of central power,

the need for protection, the decrease in the number of freemen, the rise of a

largely independent landed aristocracy, and the increased reliance on the

mounted knight - patterns of society took shape.

You Might Also Like:

World History related image
Read More

World History

Welcome to our World History section, a vast treasure trove of historical knowledge that takes you on a captivating journey through the annals of human civilization. Our collection spans a wide spectrum of topics, providing an exhaustive resource for history enthusiasts, students, and curious minds ...
Read More

A Day In The Life Of A Battle Of Britain Pilot

The following would have been a typical day in the life of a Battle of Britain pilot The sequences are based on the works of different authors with the exception that the names have been changed. This is just to give you an idea as to how a pilot may have spent his day at the height of the battle. ...
Read More

A General Survey Of The Slave Plantation

The American Civil War, Frederick Douglass Edited by: Robert Guisepi 2002 A General Survey of the Slave Plantation by Frederick Douglass It was generally supposed that slavery in the State of Maryland existed in its mildest form, and that it was totally divested of those harsh and terrible peculiari...
Read More

A. P. Hill

The American Civil War, A. P. Hill Edited by: Robert Guisepi 2002 b. Nov. 9, 1825, Culpeper, Va., U.S.d. April 2, 1865, Petersburg, Va. Confederate general during the U.S. Civil War who was particularly active in the fighting around Washington, D.C. His force, called the "Light Division," was cons...
Read More


The American Civil War, Abolition, The Movement Edited by: Robert Guisepi 2002 There can be no doubt that antislavery, or "abolition" as it came to be called, was the nonpareil reform. Abolition was a diverse phenomenon. At one end of its spectrum was William Lloyd Garrison, an "immediatist," who de...
Read More

Abraham Lincoln

The American Civil War, Abraham Lincoln American Civil War history with slideshows, photos, music, major battles like Gettysburg as well as personalities like Lincoln, Grant, Lee and the Black Regiments Edited by: Robert Guisepi 2002 He was an unusual man in many ways. One minute he would wrestle wi...
Read More


European Absolutism And Power Politics Introduction Louis XIV (1643-1715) of France is remembered best as a strong-willed monarch who reportedly once exclaimed to his fawning courtiers, "L'etat, c'est moi" (I am the state). Whether or not he really said these words, Louis has been regarded by histor...
Read More

Absolutism As A System

Absolutism As A System L'Etat, C'Est Moi Date: 1998 Absolutism As A System Unlimited royal authority, as advocated by Bossuet and Hobbes, was the main characteristic of absolutism. It was demonstrated most obviously in political organization but also served to integrate into government most econom...
Read More

Absolutism, Case Against

The Case Against AbsolutismAuthor: Wallbank;Taylor;Bailkey;Jewsbury;Lewis;HackettDate: 1992The Case Against AbsolutismThe Enlightenment's highest achievement was the development of a tightlyorganized philosophy, purportedly based on scientific principles andcontradicting every argument for absolute ...
Read More

Accession Of Solomon

Accession Of Solomon Author: Milman, Henry Hart Accession Of Solomon B.C. 1017 Introduction After many weary years of travail and fighting in the wilderness and the land of Canaan, the Jews had at last founded their kingdom, with Jerusalem as the capital. Saul was proclaimed the first king; afterwa ...
Read More


A History of Ancient Greece The Glory That Was Greece Author: Jewsbury, Lewis Date: 1992 The Acropolis Acropolis (Greek akros,"highest"; polis,"city"), term originally applied to any fortified natural stronghold or citadel in ancient Greece. Primarily a place of refuge, the typical acropolis was con...
Read More

Aegean Civilization

A History of Ancient Greece Author: Robert Guisepi Date: 1998 AEGEAN CIVILIZATION The earliest civilization in Europe appeared on the coasts and islands of the Aegean Sea. This body of water is a branch of the Mediterranean Sea. It is bounded by the Greek mainland on the west, Asia Minor (now Turkey...
Read More

Aemilius Paulus

AEMILIUS PAULUS by Plutarch Almost all historians agree that the Aemilii were one of the ancient and patrician houses in Rome; and those authors who affirm that king Numa was pupil to Pythagoras, tell us that the first who gave the name to his posterity was Mamercus, the son of Pythagoras, who, for ...
Read More

Africa In The Age Of The Slave Trade

Africa And The Africans In The Age Of The Atlantic Slave Trade Various Authors Edited By: R. A. GuisepiAfrican Societies, Slavery, And The Slave TradeEuropeans in the age of the slave trade sometimes justified enslavementof Africans by pointing out that slavery already existed on that continent.Howe...
Read More

Africa, Discovery Of Diamonds

Discovery Of Diamonds In Africa Author: Williams, Gardner F. M.A. Discovery Of Diamonds In Africa 1867 The story of the Kimberley diamond-field is one of the romances of the industrial world. Any chemist can tell us that the diamond is pure crystallized carbon; but the wisest geologist cannot mak...
Read More