Mesopotamia 9000 - 500 B.C
Early Farming Communities 9000-5000
|9000||Beginning cultivation of wild wheat and barley and domestication of dogs and sheep; inaugurating of change from food gathering to food producing culture - Karim Shahir in Zagros foothills.|
|7000||At Jarmo, oldest known permanent settlement: crude mud houses, wheat grown from seed, herds of goats, sheep, and pigs.|
|6000||Migration of northern farmers settle in region from Babylon to Persian Gulf.||Hassuna culture introduces irrigation, fine pottery, permanent dwellings; dominates culture for 1000 years, develops tradefrom Persian Gulf to Mediterranean.|
|5000||Ubaidians develop first divisions of labor, mud brick villages, first religious shrines. Small temple at Eridu - earliest example of an offering table and niche for cult object.|
|4000||Semitic nomads from Syria and Arabian peninsula invade southern Mesopotamia, intermingle with Ubaidian population||Temple at Tepe Gawra built - setting style for later examples.|
|3500||Sumerians settle on banks of Euphrates||Temple at Eridu - zigguratprototype|
|3000||Democratic assemblies give way to kingships, evolve into hereditary monarchies.|
|Kish - leading Sumerian city||Introduction of pictographs to keep administrative records.|
3-D statues, e.g. Warka head.
White Temple - ziggurat traditional design.
Temple at Tell Uqair - mosaic decorations.
cuneiform land sales formal contracts.
Eridu and Kish - simple palaces.
"Standard of Ur" - war-peace plaque, religious statues, gold and silver artifacts buried in tombs of Ur.
Sumerians of Abu Salabikh - first poetry.
|Gilgamesh, hero of Sumerian legends, reigns as king of Erech|
|2500||Lugalannemudu of Abab unites city states which vie for domination for 200 years.|
|2250||Ur-Nammu founds Ur's 3rd. dynasty; dedicates ziggurat at Ur moon-god Nanna, sets up early law code.||Gudea, Prince of Lagsh, art and lit patron,magnificant statues produced in his honor.|
|2000||Elamites attack and destroy Ur.|
Babylonians and Assyrians 1900-500
|1900||Amorites from Syrian desert conquer Sumer.|
|1800||Hammurabi asccends Babylonian throne.|
|1700||Hammurabi brings most of Mesopotamia under his control.||Hammurabi introduces law code.|
|1600||Hittite invasion from Turkey ends Hammurabi's dynasty.|
|1500||Assyria conquered by Hurrians from Anatolia.||Bas-relief of baked brick appears as dominant art form - Karaindash Temple.|
|1400||Kurigalzu assumes Babylonian throne|
|1200||Nebuchadrezzar I expels Elamites.|
|1100||King Tiglath-Pileser I leads Assyria to new era of power.||Iron, introduced originally by Hittites, is used extensively in Assyria for tools and weapons.|
|1000||Assyrian empire shattered by Aramaean and Zagros tribes. 150 Assyrian decline halted by Adadnirari II.|
|900||Assurnasirpal II builds magnificent new capital, Calah, replacing old capital of Assur, present day Nimrud.|
|800||Tiglath-Pileser II creates great empire extending from the Persian Gulf to the borders of Egypt.||Sargon II builds new capitol at Dur-Sharrukin|
|700||Assurbanipal extends empire from Nile to Caucasus Mountains. Chaldeans and Iranian Medes overrun Assyria - Neo-Babylonian empire.||Sennacherib's son, Esaraddon, rebuilds Babylon.|
|600||Nebuchadrezzar II rules Neo-Babylonian empire. Razes Jerusalem, takes Jews into captivity in Babylon.||Builds "Tower of Babel," temple to Marduk|
|500||Cyrus the Great, Persian warrior and statesman, conquers Babylon.|
The International History Project