LEWIS AND CLARK EXPEDITION
Ambrose, S.E. Undaunted Courage (Simon & Schuster, 1996).
United States citizens knew little about western North America when the Lewis and Clark Expedition set out in 1804. Twelve years earlier Captain Robert Gray, an American navigator, had sailed up the mouth of the great river he named the Columbia. Traders and trappers reported that the source of the Missouri River was in the mountains in the Far West. No one, however, had yet blazed an overland trail.
President Thomas Jefferson was interested in knowing more about the country west of the Mississippi and in finding a water route to the Pacific Ocean. In 1803, two years after he became president, he asked Congress for $2,500 for an expedition.
To head the expedition, Jefferson chose his young secretary, Captain Meriwether Lewis. Lewis invited his friend Lieutenant William Clark to share the leadership. Both were familiar with the frontier and with Native Americans through their service in the army.
Before Lewis and Clark set out, word came that Napoleon had sold an immense tract of land to the United States. Therefore, part of the region the expedition would be exploring was United States territory.
Plans for the expedition were carefully laid. The party was to ascend the Missouri to its source, carry canoes across the Continental Divide, and descend the Columbia River to its mouth. In preparation for the historic journey, Lewis studied natural history and learned how to fix latitude and longitude by the stars. In the winter of 1803-04 the expedition was assembled in Illinois, near St. Louis. The permanent party consisted of the two leaders, Lewis and Clark; three sergeants; 22 privates; the part-Native American frontiersman George Drouillard; and Clark's African American slave, York. They called themselves the Corps of Discovery.
On May 14, 1804, the explorers started up the Missouri in a 55-foot (17-meter) covered keelboat and two small canoes, paddled by French boatmen and a small temporary escort. On August 3 they held their first meeting with Native Americans at a place the explorers named Council Bluff, across the river and downstream from present-day Council Bluffs, Iowa. In late October they reached the earth-lodge villages of the Mandan, near the present site of Bismarck, N.D.
Across the river from the Mandan villages, the explorers built Fort Mandan and spent the winter. It was here that they hired Toussaint Charbonneau, a French interpreter, and his Native American wife, Sacagawea, the sister of a Shoshone chief. While at Fort Mandan, Sacagawea gave birth to a baby boy. This did not stop her from participating in the group. She carried the child on her back for the rest of the trip. As an interpreter she proved invaluable.
In the spring of 1805 the keelboat was sent back to St. Louis with dispatches for President Jefferson and with natural history specimens. Meanwhile, canoes had been built. On April 7 the party continued up the Missouri. On April 26 it passed the mouth of the Yellowstone, and on June 13 reached the Great Falls of the Missouri. Carrying the laden canoes 18 miles (29 kilometers) around the falls caused a month's delay. In mid-July the canoes were launched again above the falls. On the 25th the expedition reached Three Forks, where three rivers join to form the Missouri. They named the rivers the Madison, the Jefferson, and the Gallatin, after presidents James Madison and Thomas Jefferson, and Albert Gallatin, who was secretary of treasury under Jefferson.
For some time the explorers had been within sight of the Rocky Mountains. Crossing them was to be the hardest part of the journey. The expedition decided to follow the Jefferson River, the fork that led westward toward the mountains.
On August 12 the group climbed to the top of the Continental Divide, where they hoped to see the headwaters of the Columbia close enough to let them carry their canoes and proceed downstream toward the Pacific. Instead they saw mountains stretching endlessly into the distance. The water route Jefferson had sent them to find did not exist.
They were now in the country of the Shoshone, Sacagawea's people. Sacagawea eagerly watched for her tribe, but it was Lewis who found them. The chief, Sacagawea's brother, provided the party with horses and a guide for the difficult crossing of the lofty Bitterroot Range.
It took the Corps of Discovery most of September to cross the mountains. Hungry, sick, and exhausted, they reached a point on the Clearwater River where Nez Perce helped them make dugout canoes. From there they were able to proceed by water. They reached the Columbia River on October 16.
On Nov. 7, 1805, after a journey of nearly 18 months, Clark wrote in his journal, "Great joy in camp. We are now in view of the Ocean." The explorers had traveled more than 4,100 miles (6,600 kilometers) since they started up the Missouri. They were disappointed to find no ships at the mouth of the Columbia. A few miles from the Pacific shore, south of present-day Astoria, Ore., they built a stockade, Fort Clatsop. There they spent the rainy winter.
On March 23, 1806, the entire party started back. They crossed the mountains in June with Nez Perce horses and guides. Beside the Bitterroot River the two leaders separated to learn more about the country.
Clark headed for the Yellowstone River and followed it to the Missouri. Lewis, with nine men, struck off toward the northeast to explore a branch of the Missouri that he named the Marias. On this trip he had a skirmish with Native Americans that left two Blackfoot dead, the only such incident of the entire journey. Later, while out hunting, he was accidentally shot by one of his own men. He recovered after the party was reunited and had stopped at the Mandan villages. There they left Sacagawea and her family.
The party reached St. Louis on Sept. 23, 1806. Their arrival caused great rejoicing, for they had been believed dead. They had been gone two years, four months, and nine days.
Lewis, Clark, and several other members of the expedition kept detailed journals. They brought back much new material for cartographers and specimens of previously unknown wildlife. American settlers and traders soon began to travel over the route they had blazed. The expedition also provided useful support for the United States claim to the Oregon country.