Sumerian Glossary

  • amelu: Highest order of class in the Sumerian caste system. Included priests, government officials, and professional soldiers.
  • an-ki: Translates to "heaven-earth." Used to denote the universe.
  • Annunaki:
  • a-zu: A doctor.
  • dikud: A professional judge.
  • emesh: One of the two Sumerian seasons. Equates to summer and lasted from March to September
  • e-gal: Palace.
  • en: Lord or priest king.
  • ensi: A leader with less power than an en. A provincial governor.
  • ensiak: A leader with less power than an en. A provincial governor.
  • enten: One of the two Sumerian seasons. Equates to winter and lasted from October to February.
  • entu: Highest ranking caste member of a temple's women attendants.
  • gala: A temple poet or singer.
  • giparu: The abode of an en.
  • guda:
  • ilku: Land grants by the king to ex-soldiers.
  • ishib: In charge of temple libations.
  • kadishtu: One of the lowest orders of a temple's women attendants.
  • lil: Air or breath.
  • lugal: Translates to "big man." Used to denote a king or war leader.
  • mah:
  • mashkim: Arbitrator that attempted to settle legal matters.
  • me: Rules of divine authority that the gods use to ensure the universe functions.
  • Mesopotamia: Greek term used to describe the land between the Tigris and the Euphrates. It translates to "between the rivers."
  • mushkinu: The "middle class" in Sumerian society. Included merchants, shopkeepers, farmers, artisans, and laborers.
  • nindingir:
  • Nether World:
  • patesi: Chief priest of a temple.
  • Primeval Sea:
  • Sal-Me: The second ranking caste members of a temple's women attendants. These were more numerous than the entu.
  • sanga: The head of a temple.
  • ummia: A teacher.
  • unkin: A general assembly.
  • zikru: One of the lowest orders of a temple's women attendants.

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