Sumerian King List

The Sumerian King List was first compiled by Sumerian scribes circa 2100 B.C. Although the list is an invaluable historical resource, it does suffer from issues regarding dating as many early rulers were attributed reigns of extraordinary lengths, such as 36,000 years. This is most likely due to the absence of written records during their reign. Attempts to verify the list have also revealed that some rulers have been omitted from the list and others attributed a status they probably did not hold. This list is an attempt to list rulers of the various city-states with verified dates.

After kingship had descended from heaven, Eridu became the seat of kingship. In Eridu Alulim reigned 28,800 years as kin; Alalgar reigned 36,000 years-two kings reigned 64,800 years. Eridu was abandoned, its kingship was carried off to Badtibira.

In Badtibira, Enmenluanna reigned 43,200 years; Enmengalanna reigned 28,800 years; Dumuzi, the shepherd, reigned 36,000 years-three kings reigned 108,000 years. Badtibira was abandoned, its kingship was carried off to Larak.

In Larak, Ensipazianna reigned 28,8000 years-one king reigned 28,800 years. Larak was abandoned, its kingship was carried off to Sippar.

In Sippar, Enmeduranna reigned 21,000 years as king-one king reigned 21,000 years. Sippar was abandoned, its kingship was carried off to Shuruppak.

In Shuruppak, Ubartutu reigned 18,600 years as king-one king reigned 18,600 years.

five cities, eight kings reigned 421,200 years.

The Flood then swept over. After the Flood had swept over and kingship had descended from heaven, Kish became the seat of kingship. In Kish, Gaur reigned 1,200 years as king; Gulla-Nidaba-annapad reigned 960 years; Pala-kinatim reigned 900 years; Nangishlishma reigned.... years; Bahina reigned....years; Buanum reigned 840 years; Kalibum reigned 960 years; Galumum reigned 840 years; Zukapip reigned 900 years; Atab reigned 600 years; Mashda, the son of Atab, reigned 840 years; Arurim, the son of Mashda, reigned 720 years; Etana, the shepherd, he who ascended to heaven, who made firm all the lands, reigned 1,560 years as king; Balih, the son of Etana, reigned 400 years; Enmenunna reigned 660 years; Melam-Kish, the son of Enmenunna, reigned 900 years; Barsalnunna, the son of Enmenunna, reigned 1,200 years; Meszamug, the son of Barsalnunna, reigned 140 years; Tizkar, the son of Meszamug, reigned 305 years; Ilku reigned 900 years; Iltasadum reigned 1,200 years; Enmebaraggesi, he who smote the weapons of the land of Elam, reigned 900 years as king; Agga, the son of Enmebaraggesi, reigned 625 years. Twenty-three kings reigned 24,510 years, 3 months, 3 1/2 days. Kish was defeated, its kingship was carried off to Eanna.

In Eanna, Meskiaggasher, the son of Utu reigned as en king 324 years-Meskiaggasher entered the sea and ascended the mountains; Enmerkar, the son of Meskiaggasher, the king of Erech who had built Erech, reigned 420 years as king; Lugalbanda, the shepherd, reigned 1,200 years; Dumuzi, the fisherman, whose city was Kua, reigned 100 years; Gilgamesh, whose father was a nomad, reigned 126 years; Urnungal, the son of Gilgamesh, reigned 30 years; Udulkalamma, the son of Urnungal reigned 15 years; Labasher reigned 9 years; Ennundaranna reigned 8 years; Meshede reigned 36 years; Melamanna reigned 6 years; Lugalkidul reigned 36 years. Twelve kings reigned 2,310 years. Erech was defeated, its kingship was carried off to Ur.

In Ur, Mesannepadda reigned 80 years as king; Meskiagnunna, the son of Mesannepadda reigned 36 years as king; Elulu reigned 25 years; Balulu reigned 36 years. Four kings reigned 177 years. Ur was defeated, its kinship was carried off to Awan.

Three kings reigned 356 years. Awan was defeated, its kingship was carried off to Kish.

In Kish....reigned 201 years as king; Dadasig reigned....years; Mamagal reigned 420 years; Kalbum, the son of Mamagal, reigned 132 years; Tuge reigned 360 years; Mennumna reigned 180 years; Lugalmu reigned 420 years; Ibbi-Ia reigned 290 years. Eight kings reigned 3,195 years. Kish was defeated, its kingship was carried off to Hamazi.

In Hamazi, Hadanish reigned 360 years. One king reigned 360 years. Hamazi was defeated, its kingship was carried off to Erech

In Erech....reigned 60 years as king; Lugalure reigned 120 years; Argandea reigned 7 years. Three kings reigned 187 years. Erech was defeated, its kingship was carried off to Ur.

In Ur....Ur was defeated, its kingship was carried off to Adab.

In Adab, Lugalannemundu reigned 90 years as king. One king reigned 90 years. Adab was defeated, its kingship was carried off to Mari.

In Mari, Ilshu reigned 30 years as king;.., the son of Ilshu reigned 17 years;..reigned 30 years;..reigned 20 years;..reigned 30 years;..reigned 90 years. Six kings reigned 136 years. Mari was defeated, its kingship was carried off to Kish.

In Kish, Ku-Bau, the innkeeper, she who made firm the foundations of Kish, reigned 100 years as "king". One king reigned 100 years. Kish was defeated, its kingship was carried off to Akshak.

In Akshak, Unzi reigned 30 years as king; Undalulu reigned 12 years; Urur reigned 6 years; Puzur-Nirah reigned 20 years; Ishu-Il reigned 24 years; Shu-Sin, the son of Ishu-Il, reigned 7 years. Six kings reigned 99 years. Akshak was defeated its kingship was carried off to Kish.

In Kish, Puzur-Sin, son of Ku-Bau, reigned 25 years as king; Ur-Zababa, the son of Puzur-Sin, reigned 400 years. Simudarra reigned 30 years; Usiwatar, the son of Simudarra, reigned 7 years; Ishtar-muti reigned 11 years; Ishme-Shamash reigned 11 years; Nannia, the stone-worker, reigned 7 years. Seven kings reigned 491 years. Kish was defeated, its kingship was carried off to Erech.

In Erech, Lugalzaggesi reigned 25 years as king. One king reigned 25 years. Erech was defeated, its kingship was carried off to Agade.

In Agade, Sargon, whose father was a gardner, the cupbearer of Ur-Zababa, the king of Agade who built Agade, reigned 56 years as king; Rimush, the son of Sargon, reigned 9 years; Manishtushu, the older brother of Rimush, son of Sargon, ruled 15 years; Naram-Sin, the son of Manishtushu, reigned 56 years; Sharkalisharri, the son of Naram-Sin, reigned 25 years. Who was king? Who was not king? Igigi, the king; Nanum, the king; Imi, the king; Elulu, the king - the four of them were kings reigned 3 years. Dudu reigned 21 years; Shudurul, the son of Dudu, reigned 15 years. Eleven kings reigned 197 years Agade was defeated, its kingship was carried off to Erech.

In Erech, Urnigin reigned 7 years as king; Urgigir, the son of Urnigin, reigned 6 years; Kudda reigned 6 years; Puzur-ili reigned 5 years; Ur-Utu reigned 6 years. Five kings reigned 30 years. Erech was smitten with weapons, its kingship was carried off to the Gutium hordes.

In the Gutium hordes, a nameless king; Imta reigned 3 years as king; Inkishush reigned 6 years; Sarlagab reigned 6 years; Shulme reigned 6 years; Elulumesh reigned 6 years; Inim-bakesh reigned 5 years; Igeshaush reigned 6 years; Iarlagab reigned 15 years; Ibate reigned 3 years;...reigned 2years; Irarum reigned 2 years; Ibranum reigned 1 year; Hablum reigned 2 years; Puzur-Sin, the son of Hablum, reigned 7 years; Iarlaganda reigned 7 years;...reigned 7 years;...reigned 40 days. Twenty-one kings reigned 91 years, 40 days. The Gutium hordes was defeated, their kingship was carried off to Erech.

In Erech, Utuhegal reigned 7 years, 6 months, 15 days as king. One king reigned 7 years, 6 months, 15 days. Erech was smitten with weapons, its kingship carried off to Ur.

In Ur, Ur-Nammu reigned 18 years as king; Shulgi, the son of Ur-Nammu, reigned 48 years; Amar-Sin, the son of Shulgi, reigned 9 years; Shu-Sin, the son of Amar-Sin, reigned 9 years; Ibbi-Sin, the son of Shu-Sin, reigned 24 years. Five kings reigned 108 years. Ur was defeated, its kingship was carried off to Isin.

In Isin, Ishbi-Erra reigned 33 years as king; Shuilishu, the son of Ishbi-Erra, reigned 10 years; Idin-Dagan, the son of Shuilishu, reigned 21 years; Ishme-Dagan, the son of Idin-Dagan, reigned 20 years; Lipit-Ishtar, the son of Ishme-Dagan, reigned 11 years; Ur-Ninurta reigned 28 years; Bur-Sin, the son of Ur-Ninurta, reigned 21 years; Lipit-Enlil, the son of Bur-Sin, reigned 5 years; Erraimitti reigned 8 years; Enlil-bani reigned 24 years; Zambia reigned 3 years; Iterpisha reigned 4 years; Urdukuga reigned 4 years; Sinmagir reigned 11 years. Fourteen kings reigned 203 years.


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